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Exploring 9 Different Kiln Formed Glass Art Techniques (Plus Examples!)

An overview of different kiln formed glass techniques such as fusing, casting, and slumping.
What is kiln formed glass? When exposed to heat, glass becomes soft and malleable. This allows glass artists to alter its shape or fuse multiple layers of glass together to create new textures or color combinations. At high enough temperatures, glass even liquefies, allowing artists to pour it into (or over) a mold or contour to create new forms. Once the artist has achieved the desired effect, the glass is allowed to slowly cool and stabilize (or anneal). And the result is kiln formed glass!

9 Types of Kiln Formed Glass Techniques

One of the most exciting parts of being a glass artist is combining various kiln formed glass techniques to create unique, one-of-a-kind glass art. Once you understand these different glass firing techniques, the only limit is your creativity (as well as the capabilities of your glass kiln and glass kiln controller)!
Glass artists like Jill Gary from Jill’s Design combine multiple kilnforming glass techniques to create one-of-a-kind kiln formed glass pieces using her TAP Controller.
Glass artists like Jill Gary from Jill’s Design (who’s a proponent of TAP Controllers!) combine multiple kilnforming glass techniques to create one-of-a-kind kiln formed glass pieces.
Below is an overview of nine different kilnforming techniques – to give you inspiration for your next kiln formed glass art project!

1. Fused Glass

Fusing glass is a kilnforming technique that involves heating two or more layers of glass, and then allowing them to cool, so that they join together to form a single piece of kiln formed glass. How fully the multiple layers of glass fuse together depends on your firing temperature. The hotter the kiln, the more uniform the fuse! Below are several different types of glass fuses:
  • Full Fuse: The layers of glass are heated up until they liquefy and completely merge together, cooling to form a single, smooth piece of kiln formed glass. Full fusing can be used to create unique and beautiful color combinations.
  • Contour Fuse: Contour fusing uses a lower firing temperature than a full fuse. In contour fusing, the different layers of glass are heated up enough to fully join together while remaining distinct separate layers. In contour fusing, both layers of glass get hot enough to lose some of their initial shape, becoming smooth at the edges.
  • Tack Fuse: Tack fusing involves even lower temperatures than contour fusing. In tack fusing, different pieces of glass are heated up just enough to join together at the point of contact, with both layers retaining their original shape. Tack fusing can be used to create new textures or shapes.
Barbara Elias used a tack fuse technique known as “freeze and fuse” to create a three dimensional effect for the flowers in this glass art piece.
Barbara Elias (another artist who uses TAP!) used a tack fuse technique known as “freeze and fuse” to create a three dimensional effect for the flowers in this glass art piece.
As you can imagine, glass fusing is a versatile kilnforming technique that lets you craft new textures, colors, and even shapes! However, it’s important to make sure that the different layers of glass are compatible. Fusible glass has a higher quality grade than standard glass. Additionally, the different layers of glass need to have compatible viscosities (which isn’t always indicated by matching COEs!).

2. Glass Draping

Glass draping is another popular kiln formed glass technique. Glass draping uses heat and gravity to change the shape of a sheet of glass. For glass draping, you “drape” the glass sheet on top of a convex mold and heat up the glass until it at least partially liquefies. Gravity ensures the molten glass drapes around the convex mold. Higher temperatures lead to more dramatic results. Glass draping can be used for everything from creating conventional plates and bowls to producing abstract, other-worldly shapes!

3. Slumped Glass

Slumping is just like draping, only inversed! For slumping glass, a glass sheet is placed inside a concave mold. The glass is then heated up until it partially liquefies, taking on the shape of the mold. Since slumping glass occurs within the mold, it leads to more predictable results, and is used to create plates, bowls, cups, or decorative molds. The higher the temperature, the more fully the glass takes on the shape of the mold.

4. Glass Casting

Glass casting is similar to slumping. However, with glass casting enough glass is placed within the mold to fill it entirely – so that when the glass melts and then cools, it anneals into a solid object. Glass casting is a kiln formed glass technique that’s used to create ornaments, paper weights, and standalone glass art.
Brittany Gabel, VP & Chief Creative Officer of SDS Industries, used glass casting to create the distinct texture on the outside of this glass cup.
SDS Industries’ very own Brittany Gabel (VP & Chief Creative Officer) used glass casting to create the distinct texture on the outside of this glass cup.

5. Glass Crackle

Glass crackle is a decorative kilnforming technique that most typically involves fusing together three layers of glass. The middle layer of glass is then shattered in a controlled method – or you can create the “crackled” middle layer using glass frit and fiber paper to create a crackled effect once it’s heated and allowed to melt. During glass crackling, the three layers of glass are fused together, and the outer layers are left intact so that the final piece retains a smooth (and safe!) outer layer. There are also several alternative methods to create a crackle effect, some of which use distilled water and glass powder, which you can read about here!
Glass frit powder is used in kiln formed glass art projects for filling spaces or creating textures.
Glass frit is ground fusible glass that is used for filling spaces or creating crackled, mosaic, grainy textures, adding fine details to glass art, or for casting. Picture courtesy of Oceanside Glass & Tile, which can be purchased through our partners at Delphi Glass.

6. Pot Melting

Pot melting is another decorative kilnforming technique that involves allowing glass to melt through a hole in the bottom of a pot – onto a primed kiln shelf or into a contained mold – to create swirls and ripples and other textured effects!

Watch our partners at Delphi Glass walk you through how to incorporate pot melting into your kiln formed glass projects.

7. Fire Polishing

Fire polishing is a “finishing” technique. Typically used after cold working glass, the glass is then heated up until it returns to its original shiny and smooth state.

8. Bubble Squeezing

A bubble squeeze is a “preparatory” technique before kilnforming glass. Bubble squeezing is used to create more even fuses by slowly heating up glass to allow trapped air to escape. Bubble squeezing reduces the number of bubbles, as well as their size, resulting in more uniform (and structurally sound!) kiln formed glass.

9. Annealing

Finally, we get to annealing, which is the final step in kilnforming glass. Annealing glass is less of a technique, and more of a necessity! Annealing is a controlled cooling process. If you allow kiln formed glass to cool too quickly, it leads to all kinds of issues – like thermal shock, breakage, shattering, stress fractures, and structural weakness. An advanced glass kiln controller like TAP or TAP II by SDS Industries automatically (and precisely) cools glass at a controlled, highly specified ramp rate – keeping both glass and artists from being exposed to unnecessary stress!

Glass Supplies for Kilnforming Glass

Excited to get started? Before getting started on your next kiln formed glass project, you’ll need the right supplies! Below are brief explanations of the different glass supplies you’ll need for kilnforming!

Glass Kilns and Glass Kiln Controllers

Of course, to kiln form glass, you’ll need a kiln – and a kiln controller – that’s capable of glass firing. Glass kilns are specifically designed to heat glass to very precise temperatures so it can be fused, slumped, or cast.

(Some glassblowing artists also use a dedicated annealing kiln to slowly cool down blown glass that’s been heated outside of kiln to improve its durability and prevent the glass from experiencing thermal shock).

However, in addition to your kiln, it’s important to choose the type of kiln controller. TAP Kiln Controllers by SDS Industries provide glass artists with an advanced programmable digital controller that’s precise, simple, and easy-to-use. TAP Controllers are capable of executing complex schedules with multiple ramp rates to ensure your kiln formed glass comes out just the way you wanted! With TAP Controllers, you can store an unlimited number of firing schedules – so you always have all your glass firing schedules on-hand for when you need them. And with TAP Kiln Control Mobile, you have the convenient option to control and monitor your kiln formed glass firing right from your phone or tablet!

Types of Accessory Glass

Once you have the right kiln and the right kiln controller, you’ll also need glass. Glass used for kilnforming – also known as accessory glass – comes in several forms:

  • Glass Frit: Glass frit is ground fusible glass that is used for filling spaces or creating crackled, mosaic, grainy textures, or for adding fine details to glass art.
  • Sheet Glass: Available in a variety of sizes, sheet glass is used for kilnforming, fusing, and mosaics.
  • Glass Rods, Noodles, Stringers, and Ribbons: Glass rods, noodles, and stringers are long, narrow strips of glass that are fused to other pieces of glass to create patterns, textures, or other artistic effect. Glass ribbons are a flatter, wider alternative that are perfect for fusing.
  • Glass Confetti: Glass confetti consists of small, irregular, ultra-thin flakes of glass and are used for adding touches of color to your kiln formed glass.
  • Glass Billets: Billets are precisely cut sheets of fusible glass that are the perfect size for casting.
Glass rods, noodles, and stringers are used for kiln formed glass projects.
Photograph of glass rods, noodles, and stringers courtesy of Oceanside Glass & Tile.

Accessory glass comes in all sorts of colors and levels of translucence – so that you can create the perfect effects for your kiln formed glass projects. Just make sure that when you’re shopping for accessory glass, that the glasses you choose are compatible. A good place to start is by making sure that the glasses have matching COEs – or coefficients of expansion – which means they’ll expand or contract at the same rates when heated up or cooled down. However, there are other factors that affect compatibility, so it’s always recommended that you do plenty of research before purchasing glass and start by doing a test fuse for glasses you’re not familiar with!

Explore Glass Kiln Controllers by SDS Industries

The TAP and TAP II Controllers by SDS Industries provide artists with the most advanced, precise, and easy-to-use glass kilns controllers on the market today. With responsive touchscreen controls, an intuitive graphical UI, and integration with the TAP Kiln Control Mobile app, TAP Kiln Controllers can pair with any relay-controlled kiln or oven.

We invite you to explore our selection of programmable kiln controllers, standalones, and conversion kits on our online store. You can also purchase TAP Digital Controllers or TAP Controlled Kilns and Heat Treat Ovens through one of the following distributors:

Upgrade Your Glass Kiln with TAP Digital Kiln Controllers

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Standalone Kiln Controllers: Wall Mount Kiln Controllers and Tabletop Kiln Controllers

TAP Standalone Wall Mount Kiln Controller allow you to upgrade from manual to automatic kiln controls.

For newer artists, figuring out what type of kiln controller you need for your kiln or oven build can be an intimidating prospect. Do you need a conversion kit? A standalone kiln controller? A tabletop kiln controller? Don’t worry, below is a simple cheat sheet for understanding kiln controller categories:

  • Digital Controllers: For new kilns or oven build or competent DIYers. Digital controllers include the controller, the faceplate, and a wiring harness pigtail.
  • Conversion Kits: For upgrading automatic kiln controllers that are already installed on your kiln or oven. Conversion kits include the controller, the conversion box, a wiring harness adapter, and mounting hardware to facilitate seamless installation.
  • Standalone Kiln Controllers: For easily upgrading manual kilns to automatic controllers. Standalone kiln controllers include the controller, standalone controller housing, a power cord, and a thermocouple for plug-and-play installation.

Configurations of Standalone Kiln Controllers

For easily upgrading a manual kiln, a standalone kiln controller is the go-to choice. With standalone kiln controllers you can completely transform your kiln firing experience – from having to constantly monitor and manually adjust the temperature of your kiln to automatically executing your firing schedules with a precise, easy-to-use touchscreen controller that offer features like remote kiln control and temperature monitoring.

SDS Industries offers TAP Standalone Controllers in two different configurations: wall mount kiln controllers and tabletop kiln controllers.

The Difference Between Wall Mount Kiln Controllers and Tabletop Kiln Controllers

From a feature and functionality standpoint, TAP Wall Mount Kiln Controllers and TAP Tabletop Kiln Controllers are exactly the same. In either configuration, you have the option to choose between a TAP or a TAP II, both of which give artists the most precise, easy-to-use kiln control experience available.

Tabletop kiln controllers make upgrading your manual kiln extremely easy.

TAP Standalone Controllers give artists the ability to:

  • Seamlessly upgrade their manual kiln to the most advanced digital kiln controller on the market.
  • Easily manage and execute your firing schedules with an intuitive touchscreen and logical menus that allow you to immediately begin programming and operating your kiln.
  • Enjoy the ability to create, save, edit, and name an unlimited number of firing schedules – each with an infinite number of custom steps – so that you never have to recreate a schedule again!
  • Find the schedule you need when you need it with full alpha-numeric text displays.
  • Save time and maximize peace of mind with remote kiln control and real-time monitoring through the TAP Kiln Control Mobile app.
  • Ensure maximum consistency and stay fully informed with PID-driven precision, advanced diagnostics, error reports, graphical firing logs, push notification alerts, and more!

The only real difference is which setup fits your workspace or studio better.

Pros and Cons Wall Mount Kiln Controllers

For smaller workspaces, or ones where flat surface space is at a premium, a wall mount kiln controller allows for a compact, semi-permanent installation. With wall mount kiln controllers, there is minimal risk that the controller gets damaged by gravity or other environmental exposure. Additionally, it’s easy to mount the controller close to the kiln for clean installs in terms of having the wiring to the power outlet and to the thermocouple out of the way.

However, a wall mount kiln controller does require more work in terms of installation – and will require a surface that you can mount the controller to.

Wall mount kiln controllers allow for a clean, semi-permanent installation for your kiln controller upgrade.

Pros and Cons of Tabletop Kiln Controllers

While standalone kiln controllers are designed for easy installation, installing tabletop kiln controllers is as simple as it gets. All you need is a flat surface in proximity to the kiln to set down the controller! However, there is the risk that you accidentally knock over your controller, or the controller gets damaged by setting down another item on its tabletop.

Additionally, tabletop kiln controllers may require modifications to your workspace for a clean installation depending on where the tabletop is in relation to your kiln.

Explore TAP Standalone Kiln Controllers

Whether you’re looking for a wall mount kiln controller or a tabletop kiln controller, SDS Industries has got you covered! The TAP and TAP II Controllers are available as standalone kiln controllers in both configurations! With responsive touchscreen controls, an intuitive graphical UI, and integration with the TAP Kiln Control Mobile app, TAP Standalone controllers make the perfect upgrade to your manual kiln or heat treat oven.

We invite you to explore our selection of programmable kiln controllers, standalones, and conversion kits on our online store. You can also purchase TAP Digital Controllers or TAP Controlled Kilns and Heat Treat Ovens through one of the following distributors:

CTA for TAP Kiln Controller Shop Pages

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Setpoint Controllers: Single Setpoint vs Multi-Setpoint Controllers

Multi-setpoint controllers are capable of executing schedules with multiple steps, while single setpoint controllers can only automatically execute schedules with a single setpoint.

During a firing schedule, a setpoint is the pre-set firing temperature the kiln must reach in order to successfully complete each step. A setpoint controller measures the kiln’s temperature and cycles the relays to ensure the kiln reaches the desired temperature.

Setpoint controllers, also known as process controllers, are programmable digital devices that automatically execute firing schedules. All the user has to do is enter the desired setpoint(s), and the controller takes care of the rest!

What Is the Difference Between a Single Setpoint and a Multi-Setpoint Controller

When it comes to kiln firing schedules, there are varying degrees of complexity. For firing glass or ceramics, the kiln often has to reach multiple setpoints over multiple steps. However, most heat treat processes – such as those used for making knives, jewelry, or firing metal clay – only involve a single setpoint.

A multi-setpoint controller is capable of executing complex schedules with multiple setpoints. For instance, the TAP and TAP II Controllers by SDS Industries can accommodate schedules with an infinite number of steps! However, that level of robustness might be a little excessive for users who only work in heat treat, which is where single setpoint controllers come into play.

The TAP II is capable of executing schedules with an unlimited number of setpoints.
The TAP II Kiln Controller is capable of automatically executing schedules with an unlimited number of setpoints.

 

Single setpoint controllers are greatly simplified and only require the user to enter the single setpoint they need for each individual heat treat process.

Single Setpoint Heat Treat Processes

While a multi-setpoint controller is capable of executing schedules with a single setpoint, below are metal heat treat processes that only require a single setpoint:

  • Normalizing: The metal is heated to an extremely high temperature for a defined period of time and then air-cooled. Normalizing relieves internal stress and ensures uniformity, resulting in harder, stronger metals.
  • Hardening: The metal is heated until it forms an even solution and then allowed to cool to increase its hardness.
  • Case Hardening: Only the outside of the metal is hardened, creating a durable outer layer while ensuring the metal retains flexibility and doesn’t become brittle.
  • Quench Hardening: After heating, the metal is cooled rapidly by dipping it into an oil, polymer, or water, resulting in very hard, very brittle metal.
  • Tempering: After hardening, the metal is heated to a lower temperature to reduce excessive hardness and relieve internal stress. Tempering makes metals less brittle.
  • Annealing: The metal is heated beyond the upper critical temperature and then slowly cooled to soften it and increase its workability. Annealing increases ductility and toughness, while relieving stress, making the metal more resistant to fractures. While annealing can be completed with a single setpoint controller, it will be necessary to use sand or insulated blankets to make sure the metal doesn’t cool down too quickly outside of the oven. However, a multi-setpoint controller can be used to slowly anneal metal within the oven.

Introducing TAP&Go: The Most Easy-to-Use, Streamlined Single Setpoint Controller

In the past, single setpoint controllers were far less featured than their multi-setpoint counterparts. This forced heat treat artists to choose between advanced multi-setpoint controllers that required paying for functionality they didn’t need, or simplistic single setpoint controllers that lacked precision, ease-of-use, or required constant monitoring to know when the oven had reached the right setpoint.

SDS Industries has set out to change that with our soon-to-be released TAP&Go Single Setpoint Controller! Designed specifically for heat treat artists, knifemakers, or users who don’t need to execute complex firings, TAP&Go takes the precision and ease-of-use of TAP and simplifies it into the most advanced single setpoint controller on the market.

The TAP&Go is a simplified single setpoint controller designed specifically for heat treat.
The TAP&Go is a simplified single setpoint controller designed specifically for heat treat.

 

With TAP&Go, heat treats artists have the ability to:

  • Easily enter the temperature you want the kiln or oven to heat to – from the 2.4” touchscreen or the TAP Kiln Control Mobile app – and let the controller do the work.
  • Enjoy complete remote monitoring and control through the TAP Kiln Control Mobile app with a premium subscription.
  • Use TAP&Go’s built-in WiFi and Bluetooth to automatically pair with the TAP Kiln Control Mobile app.
  • Prevent eye strain with light and dark modes and large, full-text displays.

Explore Single Setpoint and Multi-Setpoint Controllers by SDS Industries

Whether you’re looking for a single setpoint or multi-setpoint controller, TAP has you covered! The TAP and TAP II Controllers by SDS Industries provide users the most advanced, precise, and easy-to-use multi-setpoint temperature controllers on the market today. With responsive touchscreen controls, an intuitive graphical UI, and integration with the TAP Kiln Control Mobile app, TAP Kiln Controllers can pair with any relay-controlled kiln or oven.

The soon-to-be-released TAP&Go takes the design principles of TAP but streamlines everything into a single setpoint controller so that heat treat artists only have to pay for the functionality they need!

We invite you to explore our selection of programmable kiln controllers, standalones, and conversion kits on our online store. You can also purchase TAP Digital Controllers or TAP Controlled Kilns and Heat Treat Ovens through one of the following distributors:

Explore our line of TAP Electric Kiln Temperature Controllers.

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Complete Guide to Kiln Firing Temperatures

A definitive guide for understanding kiln firing temperatures.

Whether you work in pottery, glass, or heat treat, kiln firing temperatures play a critical role in achieving your desired result. Reaching the correct kiln firing temperature during each stage of your firing schedule is the difference between successfully completing a project…or creating a total mess!

Why Are Kiln Firing Temperatures Important?

Changes in temperature affect the physical properties of a medium. Heat alters a medium’s molecular structure, potentially affecting its hardness, brittleness, malleability, color, water resistance, and more.

Every kiln firing and heat treat process involves exposing material to heat to transform its physical qualities to give it a desired set of characteristics. Whether that’s transforming green clay to bisque, tempering a blade, or casting glass to fit a mold!

Different materials undergo specific physical (and chemical) changes at specific temperatures – so kiln firing temperatures are super important and vary according to medium and technique.

Kiln Firing Schedules

However, kiln firing temperature isn’t the only factor affecting outcome. The relationship between changes in temperature over time is super important. That’s why kiln firing schedules define the following:

  • Step #: The order in which the different kiln firing temperatures occur.
  • Ramp Rate: The speed at which changes in temperature occur (measured in degrees per hour).
  • Setpoint: The desired temperature the kiln reaches during each step (measured in degrees).
  • Hold Time: The length of time (defined in days, hours, or minutes) the kiln stays at a specific kiln firing temperature before advancing to the next step.

Kiln firing schedules vary greatly in kiln firing temperatures, as well as complexity. For instance, normalizing steel for a handmade knife might only involve a single setpoint over a specific hold time. Whereas, bisque firing pottery might involve five different setpoints, each with a specific ramp rate.

In addition to increases in firing temperature, decreases in temperature are equally important. Often, heating up an object and then cooling it down too rapidly jeopardizes its structural integrity, leading to cracks and brittleness.

Kiln firing 1095 steel to 1600° F relieves internal stress and ensures uniformity, making it stronger and harder.
Normalizing 1095 steel to 1600° F relieves internal stress and ensures uniformity, making it stronger and harder.

 

Categorizing Kiln Firing Temperatures

There are multiple ways to categorize kiln firing temperatures – whether by temperature range, material, process, or cone temperature. Artists in different media generally have different ways of categorizing kiln temperature:

  • Heat Treat: By and large, heat treat artists categorize kiln firing temperatures according to process (hardening, normalizing, tempering, etc.) and material. There are very few “one-size-fits all,” standardized ranges or schedules – specificity is key.
  • Kilnformed Glass: Glass artists categorize temperature according to technique (slumping, casting, fusing, annealing, etc.) and glass “coefficient of expansion” (how fast glass expands based on changes in temperature). Glass thickness is equally important, but that has more to do with changes in hold times or ramp rates as opposed to temperature.
  • Pottery and Ceramics: For pottery and ceramics, kiln firing temperatures are still largely categorized based on cone firing temperatures and ranges – which we’ll be covering more in-depth below! Each ceramic material is rated for a cone that corresponds with a specific temperature, allowing for a more standardized scale.
For a full fuse kiln firing for 90 COE glass, the kiln must reach a setpoint of 1490° F.
For a full fuse kiln firing for 90 COE glass, the kiln must reach a setpoint of 1490° F.
 

 

 Understanding Cone Firing Temperatures

 

Unlike heat treat and glasswork, which require a greater level of specificity, potters deal in pre-defined temperature ranges – which correspond with pyrometric cones. Before the advent of modern programmable digital kiln controllers, kiln temperature control relied on manual kilns and the use of pyrometric cones and kiln sitters to measure when the proper kiln firing temperatures were reached.

Pyrometric cones melt at specified temperatures, providing a range for measuring (and categorizing) kiln firing temperatures. So, for instance Cone 06 for “low fire” clay softens and bends at 1832° F (1000° C), while Cone 14 for “high fire” porcelain softens and bends at 2552° F (1400° C).

Today, digital kiln controllers and digital pyrometers have largely made pyrometric cones obsolete. But cone numbers are still widely referenced for categorizing kiln firing temperatures. While cone firing charts are predominantly used in pottery, they are still sometimes referenced for heat treat and glasswork.

Click the button below for an in-depth cone temperature chart – which notes firing temperatures for each cone and describes the changes clay undergoes at each temperature:

 

Kiln Firing Temperature Ranges in Pottery

As you can see on the cone temperature chart, there are also temperature ranges that are used to categorize kiln firing temperatures for clay. The ranges below also correspond with three different categories of clay: earthenware, stoneware, and ceramics:

  • Low-Fire Clays: Cone 06 – Cone 1: Low-fire clays, also referred to as earthenware, are fired at temperatures ranging between 1828° F to 2079°F.
  • Mid-Fire Clays: Cone 4 – Cone 6: Mid-fire clays, which can be earthenware or stoneware, are fired at temperatures between 2142° F to 2232° F.
  • High-Fire Clays: Cone 10 – Cone 14: High fire clays, which can be used for stoneware or porcelain, are fired at temperatures between 2345° F to 2552° F.
Cone 04 clay, which is a common “low-fire” clay, fires at a kiln firing temperature of 1945° F.
Cone 04 clay, which is a common “low-fire” clay, fires at a kiln firing temperature of 1945° F.

For an in-depth explanation of the different types of clay, check out “Kiln Firing Chart for Pottery and Ceramics [Infographic].”

How to Ensure Your Kiln Reaches the Correct Kiln Firing Temperatures

Now that you understand the importance of kiln firing temperatures, how do you ensure your kiln reaches the correct temperature? That’s where kiln controllers come into play! There are three general phases when it comes to using a kiln controller to manage firing temperatures:

  • Input: First, the user has to enter what temperatures the kiln needs to reach, usually through creating a firing schedule or selecting a pre-set schedule.
  • Execution: Next, the temperature controller automatically executes the schedule, ensuring the kiln reaches the correct kiln firing temperatures over the correct timeframe.
  • Measurement: Throughout the execution phase, it’s important that either the controller itself (or an independent pyrometer) is able to precisely record kiln firing temperature based on input from the thermocouple.

Different kiln control methods handle these three phases more or less effectively. For instance, some temperature controllers are able to precisely execute schedules but are so difficult to use from a User Experience (UX) standpoint that it’s hard to know if you input the correct kiln firing temperatures to begin with! Others allow for too much variability in response times or temperature overshoot, meaning the kiln might not reach the precise temperatures you need during execution. And most kiln controllers require the user to be physically present at the kiln at all times to monitor its temperature.

The TAP Kiln Controllers by SDS Industries were designed to solve all these problems – with a touchscreen and intuitive menus to help artists input the correct kiln firing temperatures, as well as PID control algorithms to ensure maximum precision in the execution phase. Furthermore, all of the products in the TAP Ecosystem include integration with the TAP Kiln Control Mobile app – allowing for artists to remotely control and monitor their projects from their smartphone or tablet!

Explore Temperature Controllers by SDS Industries

The TAP and TAP II Controllers by SDS Industries provide users the most advanced, precise, and easy-to-use temperature controllers on the market today. With responsive touchscreen controls, an intuitive graphical UI, and integration with the TAP Kiln Control Mobile app, TAP Kiln Controllers can pair with any relay-controlled kiln or oven.

We invite you to explore our selection of programmable kiln controllers, standalones, and conversion kits on our online store. You can also purchase TAP Digital Controllers or TAP Controlled Kilns and Heat Treat Ovens through one of the following distributors:

Shop the most advanced programmable digital kiln controllers for sale.
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How to Easily Track Your Electric Kiln Firing Cost

Tracking electric kiln firing costs on a kiln firing cost calculator

Did you know that you can easily program your TAP Controller to track your electric kiln firing cost? And with the latest update to the TAP Kiln Control Mobile App, we’ve made the kiln firing cost calculator function free for all users!

Why is this important?

There are several benefits to being able to accurately track your electric kiln firing cost. If you sell (or plan on selling) your work, knowing kiln costs for each firing schedule, along with materials and labor costs, allows you to accurately price your work. Additionally, knowing your electric kiln firing cost allows you to accurately track cost growth as utility rates rise.

But even if you don’t sell your work, the kiln firing cost calculator function can help you gain insight into whether your kiln is operating as effectively as it did when it was new, helping you stay ahead of possible kiln maintenance needs. Plus, with how easy it is to program cost settings on your TAP Controller, it’s just cool information to know!

How to Use the Kiln Firing Cost Calculator on Your TAP Controller

Setting up your TAP Controller to track your electric kiln firing cost is super easy. For the original TAP Controller, you can input cost settings right from your controller screen or via the TAP Kiln Control Mobile App. For the TAP II Controller, as well as the other kiln controllers in the TAP Ecosystem, you will set up your kiln firing costs via the TAP Kiln Control Mobile App, so you can skip ahead to the next section for instructions!

Steps for Programming Kiln Cost Settings on the Controller UI

TAP Kiln Controllers have a kiln firing cost calculator for tracking your electric kiln firing cost.

  1. From the Home Screen, go to Menu > Settings > Cost.
  2. Enter your kiln’s power rating in watts in the field for ‘Kiln Power.’ If you’re unsure of your kiln’s power rating, you can usually find it on the kiln’s data plate or in your kiln’s user manual. If your kiln’s power rating is in kilowatts, just multiply that number by 1000 to convert the power rating into watts. So, for instance, if your kiln was rated for 2.16 kW, you’d multiply that by 1000, and enter 2160 in the field for ‘Kiln Power.’
  3. Enter your utility provider’s cost per kilowatt hour in the ‘Cost per kWh’ field. You can find this information on your latest electric bill or on the website for your electric utility provider. In the example below, we’ve highlighted the Cost Per kWh (so, for this example, you would enter $0.041 under ‘Cost per kWh): Once you’ve input this information, your TAP Controller will automatically calculate your electric kiln firing cost – so you can ditch the pencil, notebooks, timers, and calculators!

Example of Electric Service Details

How to Setup Electric Kiln Firing Cost Tracking on the TAP Kiln Control Mobile App

You can also program cost settings for the TAP or TAP II Controller (as well as our upcoming kiln temp controller options) on the TAP Kiln Control Mobile App – and track your electric kiln firing costs on the go!

  1. In the TAP Kiln Control Mobile App, select your kiln from the Summary Screen.
  2. Press Settings on the bottom center of your screen.
  3. Scroll down to Cost. Here you will find the field to input ‘Cost per kWh’ and ‘Kiln Power’ (refer to Steps 2 & 3 from the previous section):

Tracking electric kiln firing costs on a kiln firing cost calculator

You can download the latest version of the TAP Kiln Control Mobile App, which makes this feature free for all TAP users on the App Store (for iOS) or the Google Play Store (for Android).

As you know, electric kiln firing costs aren’t the only cost of owning (and maintaining a kiln). For additional information about the cost of kiln ownership – from purchase and installation to maintenance costs – check out our definitive guide on kiln costs!

Explore Programmable Digital Kiln Controllers by SDS Industries

When it comes to providing features that make life easier for artists, electric kiln firing cost tracking is just scratching the surface!

The TAP and TAP II Controllers by SDS Industries provide users the most advanced, precise, and easy-to-use programmable digital kiln controllers on the market today. With responsive touchscreen controls, an intuitive graphical UI, and integration with the TAP Kiln Control Mobile App, TAP Kiln Controllers can pair with any relay-controlled kiln or oven.

We invite you to explore our selection of programmable kiln controllers, standalones, and conversion kits on our online store. You can also purchase TAP Digital Controllers or TAP Controlled Kilns and Heat Treat Ovens through one of the following distributors:

Download the TAP Kiln Control Mobile App for remote kiln control from your smartphone or tablet.

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Kiln Controls: Exploring Different Kiln Control Methods

A comparison of different kiln control methods.

Kiln controls are the interface you use to program the temperature of your kiln. There are a wide variety of kiln control methods, so how do you know which one is right for you? Well, that depends on the type of kiln you’re using and the types of kiln firing schedules you frequently use.

For instance, for heat treating knives you may only need a single setpoint controller, whereas for executing firing schedules for glass or ceramics you may need a programmable digital kiln controller that’s capable of automatically executing multiple segments with different setpoints and ramp rates.

Today, we’ll be exploring the different options for kiln controls, as well as different categories of kiln controllers.

What Is a Kiln Controller?

Before getting into different kiln control methods, it’s important to understand the role of a kiln controller. A kiln controller is a device that manages the temperature and tempo of a kiln according to user inputs. Kiln controllers work by cycling the relays to a kiln’s heating elements to adjust the temperature of the kiln. Thermocouples connect the controller to the interior of the kiln to allow the controller to monitor kiln temperature and adjust power to the kiln accordingly.

The TAP Kiln Controller provides users with simple, precise kiln controls on a touchscreen UI.
The TAP Kiln Controller provides users with simple, precise kiln controls via an easy-to-use touchscreen.
 

Types of Kiln Controls

When it comes to kiln controls, there are different categories of kiln controllers. However, please note that these categories are broad. A single kiln controller may fall into more than one category. For instance, the TAP Kiln Controller by SDS Industries is an automatic controller, a process controller, a multi-setpoint controller, a multi-zone controller, and provides users with remote kiln control through the TAP Kiln Control Mobile App.

Manual Controllers vs Automatic Controllers

When it comes to kiln control methods for controlling temperature to an electric kiln, the biggest distinction is between manual controllers and automatic controllers. With manual controllers, kiln operators must adjust kiln controls by hand, in real-time throughout the firing process using analog control knobs, dials, and switches. While kiln sitters can be used to ensure the kiln eventually shuts off once it reaches a pre-defined temperature, manual kiln controllers require constant user oversight and input in order to make any adjustments to a firing schedule.

Automatic kiln controllers (also known as digital kiln controllers), on the other hand, are capable of executing kiln controls for an entire firing schedule without user input. With automatic controllers, users preprogram their entire firing schedule into the controller in advance. Once they press ‘Start,’ the controller automatically adjusts kiln temperature, ramp rates, and hold times until the firing schedule reaches completion. Automatic kiln controllers significantly streamline the firing process. Their added convenience and precision make them the preferred kiln control method for many artists and industrial kiln operators.

Limit Controllers vs Process Controllers

Another difference to consider when it comes to kiln controls is the difference between limit controllers and process controllers. Limit controllers, also known as high limit controllers or safety limiters, allow users to pre-program their electric kiln to automatically shut off if the kiln exceeds a specified temperature. While limit controllers usually aren’t suited to be the primary control method on an electric kiln, they are an important part of kiln safety and can protect you, your equipment, and your property in the case of relay or system failure.

Process controllers, on the other hand, monitor temperature throughout the firing process, automatically adjusting output to ensure that the kiln stays within a preset range. Process controllers are used to execute firing schedules with added precision.

Multi-Setpoint Controllers vs Single Setpoint Controllers

Another distinction between kiln control methods is whether a controller is multi-setpoint or single setpoint. A multi-setpoint controller is capable of automatically reaching multiple setpoints (pre-defined temperatures) in succession according to a firing schedule. By comparison, single setpoint controllers are only capable of bringing the kiln to a single setpoint over the course of a firing program.

Multi-Zone Controllers vs Single Zone Controllers

Kiln controls also vary according to whether they are able to deliver uniform temperature throughout different areas – or zones – of the kiln. A multi-zone controller is capable of independently heating multiple zones of the kiln to maintain uniformity throughout the firing chamber. Multi-zone kilns and ovens are usually very large and can see significant temperature differences from one section to another. Single zone controllers can heat the entire kiln to a single temperature.

The TAP II Controller is a cutting-edge single zone kiln controller.
The TAP II Controller is a cutting-edge single zone kiln controller.
 

Touchscreen Controllers vs Key-Based Controllers

Another distinction between kiln control methods is how users interface with the controller. Up until fairly recently, automatic kiln controllers could only be programmed using keys (or analog buttons). Due to a limited number of keys, this kiln control method requires users to press each button multiple times and navigate complex, multi-layered menus.

In 2015, SDS Industries revolutionized the kiln control industry by introducing touchscreen kiln controls. Touchscreen kiln controllers brought users added convenience, precision, and ease-of-use, allowing them to easily adjust settings and completely program their kiln with minimal finger presses. Additionally, the touchscreen allowed for a larger display, making controller navigation significantly easier, with alpha-numeric, full text displays of kiln firing schedule names to make it easy for operators to access, edit, and execute the right firing schedule.

Remote Kiln Controls

Another major advancement in kiln control came in 2016 with the release of the TAP Kiln Control Mobile App. Whereas earlier kiln control methods required users to be physically present by their controller in order to input kiln controls, the TAP Kiln Controllers allowed users to monitor and make adjustments to their kiln remotely from their smartphone or tablet. The TAP Kiln Control Mobile App allows users to:

  • Monitor their kiln remotely with real-time updates.
  • Remote start, skip firing steps, or abort firings.
  • Receive real-time firing updates via push notifications.
  • Create and modify schedules.
  • Update kiln settings.
  • And more!
The TAP Kiln Control Mobile App provides remote kiln controls from your smartphone or tablet.
The TAP Kiln Control Mobile App provides remote kiln controls from your smartphone or tablet.
 

Explore Kiln Controls by SDS Industries

The TAP and TAP II Controllers by SDS Industries provide users the most advanced, precise, and easy-to-use kiln controls on the market today. With responsive touchscreen controls, an intuitive graphical UI, and integration with the TAP Kiln Control Mobile App, TAP Kiln Controllers can pair with any relay-controlled kiln or oven.

We invite you to explore our selection of programmable kiln controllers, standalones, and conversion kits on our online store. You can also purchase TAP Digital Controllers or TAP Controlled Kilns and Heat Treat Ovens through one of the following distributors:

Shop TAP Kiln Control Methods by SDS Industries.

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Understanding Kiln Firing Schedules for Glass, Ceramics, Pottery, and Heat Treat

Kiln firing schedules for glass, ceramics, pottery, and heat treat

The primary function of a kiln controller is to help users input (and successfully execute!) their kiln firing schedules…but what is a kiln firing schedule? Below, we’ll be helping you understand kiln firing schedules, as well as how firing schedules differ for materials such as glass, ceramic, pottery, and metal heat treat!

Definition of Kiln Firing Schedules

A kiln firing schedule is a progression of steps, made up of temperature changes over specific time intervals, that a kiln moves through during a firing. Each step of a kiln firing schedule is made up of four components:

  • Step #: Also known as a ‘segment,’ step # represents the order in which the steps of the schedule occur.
  • Ramp Rate: Measured in degrees per hour, the ramp rate is the speed at which the kiln is heated up or cooled down.
  • Setpoint: Measured in degrees, the setpoint is the desired temperature the kiln reaches during each step.
  • Hold Time: Also, known as a ‘soak,’ hold time is the length of time (defined in days, hours, or minutes) the kiln stays at a specific setpoint before advancing.

Each of these components determines the properties of the finished ware once the firing schedule reaches completion. Even extremely minor variances in adhering to kiln firing schedules can have a major impact on the finished result, so it’s important to accurately input firing schedules into your kiln controller and to utilize kiln controllers that are able to automatically execute kiln firing schedules with extreme precision.

Example of a Kiln Firing Schedule

Kiln firing schedules, sometimes colloquially referred to as programs or firing schedules, can best be described as the road map the controller uses to execute a firing. While kiln firing schedules can string together as many steps as necessary to achieve the desired firing result, below we’ll be looking at an example of a three-step firing schedule:

Example of a 3-step kiln firing schedule in order to illustrate the format and various components of firing schedules

Assuming the kiln starts at room temperature, or 70° F, the example schedule shown above will result in a firing that takes 5 hours and 24 minutes to complete. Below is a visual graph representing the firing profile of this schedule:

A 3-step kiln firing profile plotted as a line graph

In this graph, we can see that the kiln follows a 500 degree-per-hour ramp rate from time 0 (when the kiln was started) to 950 degrees (the first setpoint). Once the setpoint is achieved, the controller regulates the temperature to keep the kiln at 950° for 30 minutes.

Once the hold time from the first step is completed, the kiln advances at a rate of 1200 degrees-per-hour to a setpoint of 1425° and holds there for 20 minutes.

Finally, the kiln moves to step three, cooling at a rate of 300 degrees-per-hour down to a setpoint of 700°. Because the hold time at Step #3 is zero, the kiln firing schedule is now complete!

See our article on Alerts and Alarms so you can be notified when your kiln firing schedule reaches certain firing points! 

Ramp/Hold vs Time-to Temp Schedules

Kiln firing schedules can also be expressed in different formats. The example above is the common Ramp/Hold format, which can also be described as a Ramp/Soak or Ramp/Dwell schedule. This is the most common kiln firing schedule format, and it is also the format that is supported by TAP Kiln Controllers.

However, kiln firing schedules can also be written in a Time-to-Temp format, which contains all of the same information but prioritizes the timing of the firing as opposed to the temperature of the firing.

When generating a Time-to-Temp schedule, you are, in effect, saying “I want to be at 950 degrees in 1 hour and 45 minutes.” At that point, the controller is responsible for converting the defined “Time-to-Temp” into a usable Ramp Rate. By saying we want to be at 950° in 1 hour and 45 minutes, and assuming we’re starting from 70°, we’ve essentially created a firing schedule with an implied ramp rate of 500 degrees-per-hour.

NOTE: Some controllers that use Time-to-Temp format do not report accurate ramp rate, which can affect outcomes of the firing schedule. For instance, a Time-to-Temp controller might report that your kiln went from 100° to 1250° in one minute, because that was what it was programmed to do, even though achieving that level of temperature change over that time interval simply isn’t possible.

Below is the exact same kiln firing schedule from before written in a Time-to-Temp format:

A kiln firing schedule written in Time-to-Temp format

The firing graph for both formats would look exactly the same – and executing either format would yield the same outcome once the firing schedule reaches completion (assuming the controller was capable of converting the Time-to-Temp into an accurate ramp rate). The only difference is how the kiln firing schedule is expressed. What was defined in three steps in the Ramp/Hold format requires five steps in the Time-to-Temp format, despite yielding the same firing profile.

What Factors Does a Kiln Firing Schedule Depend On?

Kiln firing schedules are dependent on the material/media being fired, as well as the physical capabilities of the kiln. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to kiln firing schedules, as the material within the kiln will require its own unique schedule to achieve optimal results. Later in the article, we’ll be looking at examples of firing schedules for glasswork, firing ceramics, and metal heat treat.

Limitations of Kiln Firing Schedules

Now that you know the components of a kiln firing schedule, you should also understand the limitations. The physical capabilities of the kiln dictate certain physical boundaries that cannot be overcome. The material of the kiln, chamber size, power rating, and thermocouple gauge all contribute to the kiln’s demonstrated performance.

As kilns approach higher temperatures, their ability to heat at defined ramp rates begins to fall off. A kiln that can heat at a ramp rate of 3600 degrees-per-hour while at 200° will likely be unable to generate the same ramp rate at 1500°. This is a result of the kiln material and power rating.

Thermocouples are used to read the temperature inside a kiln chamber and communicate that temperature to the kiln controller. A kiln with an 8-gauge thermocouple will respond much slower to temperature input than a 20-gauge thermocouple. This can result in overshoot at low setpoints as the thermocouple needs time to “catch-up” to the heat that has been applied to the kiln.

Kiln Firing Schedules for Glass

While the kiln firing schedule example above was hypothetical, in this section we’ll explore actual kiln firing schedules for different types of glasswork techniques.

Please Note: Each of these schedules is for 90 COE glass. Additionally, each firing schedule will have to be adjusted according to your specific kiln, the size of your project, as well as the type of glass you’re using – some experimentation will be required, so please just use these as a general guideline.

For additional in-depth technical information about using your kiln to fire glass, please visit https://www.bullseyeglass.com/index-of-articles/.

Full Fuse Firing Schedule

A full fuse is when you use heat and time to combine two or more layers of glass to form one single solid piece of glass. The layers of glass fuse together – hence the name! Below is a full fuse firing schedule for projects that are smaller than 12”.

A full fuse firing schedule for 90 COE glass

  1. 400°F/Hr to 1250°F – hold 30 minutes.
  2. 600°F/Hr to 1490°F – hold 10 minutes.
  3. AFAP°F/Hr to 900°F – hold 30 minutes.
  4. 150°F/Hr to 700°F – hold 0 minutes.
  5. AFAP°F/Hr to 70°F – hold 0 minutes.

You can find temperature guidelines for additional glasswork processes here.

Glass Casting Firing Schedule

Glass casting is when you melt glass until it is soft and malleable enough to conform to a mold. The glass then hardens to create a glass object in the shape of the mold. Below is a glass casting firing schedule for a small open face mold cast:

A glass casting firing schedule for 90 COE glass

 

 

  1. 100°F/Hr to 200°F – hold 6 hours.
  2. 100°F/Hr to 1250°F – hold 2 hours.
  3. 600°F/Hr to 1525°F – hold 3 hours.
  4. AFAP °F/Hr to 1200°F – hold 4 hours.
  5. 50°F/Hr to 900°F – hold 6 hours.
  6. 12°F/Hr to 800°F – hold 1 minute.
  7. 20°F/Hr to 700°F – hold 1 minute.
  8. 72°F/Hr to 70°F – hold 1 minute.

Additional details about casting firing schedules can be found here.

Annealing Firing Schedule

Annealing glass is the process of stabilizing glass during the cooling process by holding it at a steady temperature to give it time to strengthen. COE 96 glass is typically annealed at a setpoint of 960°F. However, the size of the glass, its thickness, as well as the number of layers being used determines how long the anneal hold needs to be.

From the example of the Full Fuse Firing Schedule above, we highlighted the steps that involved annealing in green:

An annealing firing schedule for a glass kiln

Notice that Step #3 has the kiln hold at the annealing setpoint 900°F for 30 minutes in order to give the fuse time to stabilize, and then Step #4 and Step #5 have the kiln slowly cooling down from the setpoint to the final temperature.

See our article Benefits of Using a Digital Controller for Glass Kilns for more information about using your kiln for glasswork!

Kiln Firing Schedules for Ceramics

Before getting into kiln firing schedules for ceramics, it’s important to know what Cone # the material you’re firing is rated for. This represents the setpoint at which the type of material you’re using is properly fired. So, for example, Cone 04 clay would need to reach a setpoint of at least 1945°F whereas Cone 6 Porcelain would need to reach a setpoint of 2232°F.

Please Note: All of these kiln firing schedules are for 04 Cone clay. Just like with glasswork, each firing schedule will have to be adjusted according to your specific kiln, the size of your project, as well as the type of clay, stoneware, or porcelain you’re using – some experimentation will be required, so please use these as a general guideline.

Candling Firing Schedule 

Candling is the process of allowing clay to fully dry prior to high temperature ceramic firings. This involves heating your kilns to a low temperature for a prolonged period of time. Below is an example of a kiln firing schedule for candling your clay:

A pottery kiln firing schedule for candling clay

  1. 150°F/Hr to 150°F – hold 12 hours.

Simple, right? However, this is just to get the clay ‘bone-dry’ before firing it, since the natural moisture of the clay, if fired too quickly, can cause your project to crack and fissure!

Bisque Firing Schedule for Cone 04 Ceramics

A bisque firing is the process of turning clay into ceramics! Below is a slow bisque firing schedule for Cone 04 clay:

A bisque firing schedule for Cone 04 ceramics

  1. 80°F/Hr to 250°F.
  2. 200°F/Hr to 1000°F.
  3. 100°F/Hr to 1100°F.
  4. 180°F/Hr to 1695°F.
  5. 80°F/Hr to 1945°F.

You’ll notice that this firing schedule doesn’t include any hold times. However, the total firing time is 13 hours and 26 minutes. So how does that work? In this case, the firing time is dictated by the ramp rate – or the amount of time it takes for your kiln to reach each setpoint in the firing schedule.

Glaze Firing Schedule for Cone 04 Ceramic

When firing pottery, it’s important to match the Cone # of your glaze to the Cone # of your clay. In this case, we’re using Cone 04 clay, which is a “low-fire” clay. Therefore, we’d want to use a glaze that’s in the Cone 06-04 range. In other words, the temperature of the glaze firing schedule shouldn’t exceed the temperature of the bisque firing schedule.

Glaze firing schedule for Cone 04 ceramics

  1. 150°F/Hr to 250°F.
  2. 400°F/Hr to 1695°F.
  3. 100°F/Hr to 1945°F.

See our article on How to Use a Pottery Kiln Temperature Controller for more information on how to fire ceramics!

Firing Schedules for Heat Treating Metals

Just like with glasswork and pottery, kiln firing schedules for metal heat treat is extremely dependent on the type of material you’re using. But, additionally, it’s dependent on the qualities you want the finished metal to have. For heat treat, the rate at which you cool the metal has a significant impact on the molecular structure of the metal. For these examples, we’ll be working with 1095 steel.

Please Note: All of these kiln firing schedules are for 1095 steel. Just like with Each firing schedule will have to be adjusted according to your specific kiln or heat treat oven, the type of metal you’re using, its thickness, as well as the desired properties – some experimentation will be required, so please just use these as a general guideline.

You can find more information about setpoints and cooling rates for different effects on different types of metal here.

Normalizing Firing Schedule for 1095 Steel

Normalizing is a process where metal is heated to an extremely high temperature for a defined period of time and then either air-cooled or furnace cooled at a controlled ramp rate. Normalizing relieves internal stress and ensures uniformity, resulting in harder, stronger metals. Below is a normalizing firing schedule for 1095 steel:

A schedule for normalizing 1095 steel in a heat treat oven

  1. AFAP°F/Hr to 1600°F – hold for 15 minutes.
  2. Remove knife or blade from the oven and allow to air-cool.

Quench Hardening Firing Schedule for 1095 Steel

Quenching is the process where metal is heated and then cooled rapidly by dipping it into an oil, polymer, or water, resulting in very hard, very brittle metal. This increases the hardening of the metal (but also its brittleness). Below is a quench firing schedule for 1095 steel:

Heat treat schedule for quench hardening 1095 steel

  1. AFAP°F/Hr to 1600°F – hold for 15 minutes.
  2. Remove knife or blade from the oven and quench in fast oil to 150°F.

Tempering Firing Schedule for 1095 Steel

After hardening, the metal is heated to a lower temperature to reduce excessive hardness and relieve internal stress. Tempering makes metals less brittle – it should be done within two hours after the steel cools from the quench hardening process. Below is a tempering firing schedule for 1095 steel:

Tempering firing schedule for 1095 steel

  1. AFAP°F/Hr to 400°F – hold for 2 hours.
  2. Allow knife or blade to slowly cool – either air-cooled or within the oven.

You’ll notice that most heat treat applications have simple kiln firing schedules that only involve a single setpoint and aren’t dependent on ramp rate. For this reason, it might make sense to use a single setpoint controller for heat treat applications like the TAP & Go by SDS Industries.

Check out Guide to Choosing Heat Treating Controllers for more information about different types of heat treatments!

The Easiest Way to Precisely Execute Kiln Firing Schedules

The TAP and TAP II Controllers by SDS Industries are the most advanced, precise, and easy-to-use digital kiln controllers on the market today. With responsive touchscreen controls, an intuitive graphical UI, and integration with the TAP Kiln Controller Mobile App, TAP Kiln Controllers can pair with any relay-controlled kiln or oven to allow you to easily manage and execute your kiln firing schedules.

We invite you to explore our selection of programmable kiln controllers, standalones, and conversion kits on our online store. You can also purchase TAP Digital Controllers or TAP-Controlled Kilns and Heat Treat Ovens through one of the following distributors:

Shop TAP Kiln Controllers CTA

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Benefits of Using a Digital Controller for Glass Kilns

How to Use a Glass Kiln Temperature Controller Blog Header

Let’s face it: glass is touchy. Heat it up or cool it down too quickly, it’s susceptible to breaking. Hold for too long, and you’re liable to end up with cloudy glass (also known as devitrification). Fail to fast cool or anneal properly, and the structural integrity of your glasswork is jeopardized.

Operating a glass kiln can be extremely intimidating for newcomers. And even vets have to be mindful. One misstep in your firing schedule, and the project you’ve been working on for hours could end up fragile, unintentionally bubbly, or cracked. Precision and consistency are key.

Digital controllers for glass kilns help streamline the glass firing process for glassblowers, fusers, casters, and flameworkers by automatically managing the temperature of the kiln at every stage of the glass firing process, ensuring inputs and outputs are consistent and predictable.

Benefits of Using a Digital Controller for Glass Kilns

Digital controllers provide multiple benefits and quality-of-life features for glass artists, such as:

  • The ability to create, modify, and save an unlimited number of firing schedules, allowing glass artists to select different schedules for different techniques.
  • Touchscreen controls and graphical firing views to allow kiln operators to easily create, execute, and monitor their firing schedule.
  • Precise control algorithms to ensure that the glass kiln reaches the optimum temperature at the optimum time.
  • Alerts, diagnostics, and firing charts that allow glass artists to track their firing progress and provide insights into what adjustments they might need to make to achieve their desired effect.
  • A kiln controller app that gives users the ability to create, execute, and monitor their glass firing schedule from their mobile device.

Throughout this article, we’ll be exploring each of those benefits more in-depth!

Using a Digital Controller for Glass Kilns to Create Firing Schedules

A digital controller, also known as an automatic controller, allows glass artists to create their firing schedule in advance. Digital controllers for glass kilns give operators the ability to set the following for each step of the firing process:

  • Ramp Rate: The speed at which the kiln heats up or cools down.
  • Setpoint: The temperature the kiln reaches.
  • Hold Time: How long the kiln stays at temperature.
TAP II Schedule Screen for Glass Kiln
This is the schedule creation screen for a TAP II Controller, where glass artists have the ability to input Ramp Rate, Setpoint, and Hold Times for an unlimited number of steps and schedules.

Examples of firing schedules for common glasswork techniques such as Full Fusing, Contour Fusing, Tack Fusing, Fire Polishing, Draping, and Slumping can be found here.

Once the firing schedule is created, the digital controller then automatically executes the schedule. 

The Importance of an Intuitive User Interface

When choosing a digital controller for a glass kiln, it’s important to select a controller with a simple, intuitive user interface. Glass firing schedules can be extremely complex. User inputs don’t have to be.

The TAP and TAP II Kiln Controllers by SDS Industries are designed to be extremely user-friendly with responsive touchscreen controls, easy-to-navigate menus, and large full text displays that show complete firing schedules. These features allow glass artists to easily create, manage, navigate, and execute their firing schedules without having to constantly consult their user manual.

PID Control Algorithms to Avoid Errors

Since glasswork relies so heavily on precision, even minor disparities in temperature or divergence from the schedule can result in failed glasswork. The most advanced digital controllers for glass kilns utilize PID (“Proportional Integral Derivative”) control algorithms. Without getting too technical, PID control algorithms automatically monitor and adjust the temperature of the kiln to ensure that it is as close to the Setpoint as possible. PID-driven digital controllers ensure fast response, minimal overshoot, and limited steady-state errors, making them ideal for glass work.

Using Graphical Firing Views and Alerts to Monitor the Firing Process

While digital controllers for glass kilns automatically execute the firing schedule, it’s still important for glass artists to stay informed on the progress of their firing schedule. Digital controllers give operators the ability to set alerts that let them know when their kiln has reached the Setpoint or when Hold Times have nearly passed.

Real-time graphical firing views let operators easily track their glass firing and make sure that the kiln chamber has reached the correct temperature. Diagnostics and datalogging are also important for glasswork and make it easy for kiln operators to troubleshoot possible flaws in their glass and make any necessary adjustments to their firing schedule. 

The Convenience of Mobile Kiln Control

Another potential benefit of using a digital controller for a glass kiln is the ability to control and monitor all kiln functions from a mobile device. The TAP Kiln Control Mobile App, available on iOS or Android, gives glass artists the convenience of almost complete remote control.

The TAP Kiln Control Mobile App allows kiln operators to effectively control their firing schedule from their tablet or mobile device, and includes real-time updates, push notifications, and the ability to update kiln settings, skip steps, or abort firing. Users also have the option to unlock additional convenience features such as remote start by upgrading their subscription. These features allow glass artists to effectively execute complex firing schedules without having to put the rest of their life on pause.

Where to Buy a Digital Controller for Your Glass Kiln

If you’re in the market for a digital controller for your glass kiln, the TAP and TAP II Controllers by SDS Industries are the most advanced, precise, and user-friendly kiln controllers on the market today. We invite you to check out our selection of digital controllers, standalones, and conversion kits on our online store. Or you can purchase TAP Digital Controllers or TAP-Controlled Glass Kilns at one of the following distributors:

CTA: Upgrade Your Glass Kiln with TAP Digital Kiln Controllers